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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 78-85

Complications and limitations of endoscopic spine surgery and percutaneous instrumentation

1 Department of Neurosurgery, Nanoori Hospital, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea
2 Department of Neurosurgery, Nanoori Hospital, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jurong Health Campus, National University Health System, Singapore
3 Department of Ortho-Spine Surgery, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Hyeun-Sung Kim
Prof. Hyeun-Sung Kim, MD, PhD, Department of Neurosurgery, Nanoori Hospital Gangnam, Seoul, 731, Eonju-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul.
Republic of Korea
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/isj.isj_27_19

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Endoscopic spine surgery has started replacing conventional microdiscectomy in various centers across the globe. With development in the field of optics and instrumentation, the field of percutaneous endoscopic spine surgery has evolved immensely. With increasing experience, endoscopic spine surgeons have expanded the indications not only to lumbar paramedian disc herniations but also to central disc herniations, high-grade migrated disc herniations, sequestered herniations, thoracic and cervical disc herniations, and more recently, lumbar canal stenosis. With broadening indications, unexpected adverse events are bound to increase. Hence, it is essential for the endoscopic spine surgeons to be aware of the potential hazards and unexpected complications of the procedure so that appropriate care is taken to avoid adverse events as much as possible. In this article, we summarize all the complications of transforaminal endoscopic discectomy reported in the literature. We have classified the complications into intraoperative, immediate postoperative, and late postoperative complications. The senior author has also suggested the tips to avoid these complications and carry out the procedure as safely as possible. As percutaneous instrumentation, particularly, percutaneous pedicular screws, is also becoming common with the development of minimally invasive spine surgery, we have also summarized its complications and limitations. An insight into these complications will help the endoscopic surgeons to take special precautions when performing the procedure.

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